WHAT ARE ELECTRIC VEHICLES?
Electric vehicles (EV) are vehicles powered by an electric motor in stead of an internal combustion engine. Evs use electricity as the “fuel” instead of gasoline or some other combustible fuel. The electric motor in an EV converts electricity, usually from a battery pack, into mechanical power to turn the wheels.
Major manufacturers are producing electric vehicles in a wide range of styles and sizes, including passenger cars, mini-vans, sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks. EVs today come as small as bicycles and motor scooters and as big as buses.
HOW DO ELECTRIC VEHICLES WORK?
Compared to gasoline-powered cars, EVs are fundamentally simpler. An electric motor, for example, has one moving part while an internal combustion engine has hundreds.
EVs store electricity in batteries until it’s needed to power the motor. A battery controller mornitors and governs the operation of the battery pack. Another technology being developed for EVs-fuel cells-does not store electricity, but instead generates it through a chemical process onboard the vehicle as it needed.POWER SYSTEM
The flow of electricity from the storage batteries to the motor is regulated by the motor controller, which is “the brains” of the vehicle and the main component of the power system.
If the EV has an AC motor, he power system also includes an inverter to convert the DC electricity from the batteries to AC current or the motor.
WHY DO WE DRIVE AN EV ?
QUIET AND CLEAN
EVs offer a quiet, fume-free, smooth driving experience. Since the motor does not operate when the vehicle is at a stop, an EV has no “idle” noises.
EV drivers will be surprised by the quality of the EV driving experience. Evs provide fast acceleration by
delivering power instantly to the wheels. By providing
high torque at low speeds.
Well-designed Evs, travel at speeds equivalent to conventional vehicles and offer all the same safety and high-performance features.
LOWER OPERATION COST
The per-mile fuel cost of operating an EV can be less than a gasoline- powered car. The exact amount of savings depends on the local electricity rate which varies from utility to utility. In addition, no-more tune-ups, oil changes or muffler replacements.
Elecric vehicles are today’s only zero-emission vehicles. They have no tailpipes and emit no pollutants. Power plant emissions generated for EV use are typically much lower than emissions from the comparable use of gasoline-powered cars.
HOW SAFE ARE EVs ?
Electric vehicles must meet all the same safety standards as conventional vehicles. These requirements are established by the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration.
The safety record of EVs is being carefully monitored. To date, findings are positive and have shown that several EV features maximize safety. EVs have less potential for major fires or explosions.
The entire design of EVs and their components has been focused on maximizing safety, including meeting all electrical and safety standards set by the National Electrical Code, the Society of Automotive Engineers and other safety organizations. The end result is that driving and charging an EV is as safe as driving any type of vehicle in any type of weather, at any time of day.
HOW TO CHARGE BATTERIES ?
EV owners can recharge in their driveway or garage, overnight or during the weekend or whenever is most convenient.
Some employers are beginning to provide charging stations in parking lots for employee use
Companies that operate fleets of vehicles will be able to charge their fleet EVs at their central parking facilities.
HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO CHARGE EV ?
The amount of time it takes to charge an EV depends mainly on two factors:
1) the degree to which the battery pack has been depleted
2) the level of voltage used to recharge the batteries
The national Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Working Council (IWC) has established 3 charging levels for EVs:
Level 1 (slow) – Uses a common receptacle found in homes and offices. Sometimes called “convenience charging,” this method allows for charging at any location, but is considered a secondary method due to the length of time it requires. Because of the limited current of about 10 amps, Level 1 charging will typically take between 8 to 14 hours or more to fully charge, depending on the size of battery pack.
Level 2 (normal) – This is the primary method for charging an EV and requires pecial EV supply equipment. Level 2 charging usually takes from 4 to 8 hours depending on how “low” the battery is. This level is expected to become the most common from for homes, fleets and public charging stations.
Level 3(fast) – This level operates at high voltage levels and will be able to charge an EV in about 10 to 20minutes. Still under development.